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基于正交设计与GA-BP算法的铁路货车车体结构优化
作者:刘文飞1 2  刘志明1  胡伟钢1   良2  田迎利2 
单位:1. 北京交通大学 机械与电子控制工程学院, 北京 100044; 2. 包头北方创业有限责任公司,内蒙古 包头 014032
关键词:铁路货车车体  结构优化  GA-BP算法  结构设计策略  正交试验 
分类号:
出版年·卷·期(页码):2019·41·第5期(27-34)
摘要:

铁路重载货车车体在运用中出现的疲劳裂纹往往发生在焊缝连接处,为了从设计源头有效遏制此类问题的发生,对车体结构设计传统策略进行了优化,并给出了适用于车体结构设计的优化方法。车体结构设计策略优化是在车体设计传统策略基础上,通过车体静强度仿真,确定应力集中部位,然后建立包括焊缝的应力集中部位实体模型,在结果分析时除了关注焊缝连接处的应力最大点,同时重点关注焊缝连接处的应力变化趋势。为了进一步降低焊缝连接处的应力,给出了正交试验设计、BP神经网络、遗传算法相结合的优化方法。最后采用车体设计策略与GA-BP优化方法对C80E车体从整体到局部进行结构优化,不仅提升了车体结构的疲劳可靠性,同时也验证了本文给出的车体设计策略与结构优化方法合理、可行。

Fatigue cracks usually occur at welded joints of heavy haul wagon body during operation. In order to effectively curb the occurrence of such problems from the design, the traditional strategy of wagon body structure design was optimized, and the optimization method applicable to wagon body structure design was presented. The structural design strategy of wagon body includes two parts. Firstly, based on the traditional strategy of wagon body design, the stress concentration area is determined by the finite element simulation. Secondly, the solid model of stress concentration area with welded joints is established. In the analysis of the results of the car body structure, the maximum stress at the weld joint,as well as the trend of stress change at the weld joint should be both emphasized. In order to further reduce the stress at the weld joints, the paper presented the optimization method which integrates orthogonal experiment design, BP network and genetic algorithm. Finally, using the structural design strategy and GA-BP optimization method presented by this paper, the C80E wagon body was optimized from the whole structure to the local area, improving the body structure’s fatigue reliability. Meanwhile, the rationality and feasibility of the design strategy of wagon body and structural optimization method were verified.

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